In 221 B.C., Ying Zheng, a man of great talent and bold vision, ended the rivalry among the independent principalities in the Warring States Period.

He established the first centralized, unified, multi-ethnic state in Chinese history, under the Qin Dynasty (221-207 B.C.). He called himself Shi Huang Di (the First Emperor), also known as Qin Shi Huang, or First Emperor of the Qin Dynasty.

During his reign, Qin Shi Huang standardized the script, currencies, and weights and measures, established the system of prefectures and counties, and began the construction of the world-renowned Great Wall . He also built a large palace, a mausoleum (the Terracotta Army), and temporary regal lodges in Xi’anyang, Lishan, and other places.

At the end of the Qin Dynasty, Liu Bang, a peasant leader, overthrew the Qin regime in cooperation with Xi’ang Yu, an aristocratic general. A few years later, Liu Bang defeated Xi’ang Yu and established the strong Han Dynasty in 206 B.C.