Chinese Grammar-- Simple Sentences 简单句
Sentences are formed from words and phrases using grammatical rules to express a complete idea. In general, simple sentences are composed of a subject and a predicate. Sentences can also be classified as either subject-predicate sentences or non subject-predicate sentences. Subject-predicate sentences use a subject section and a predicate section. For instance,
我学习英语 (wǒ xuéxí yīngyǔ)。I study English. ("他" is the subject section and "学习英语" is the predicate section.)
家里很干净 (jiālǐ hěn gānjìng)。The house is very clean. ("家里" is the predicate section and "很干净" is the predicate section.)
Subject-predicate sentences can be divided into those with a verbal predicate, those adjectival predicate, those with a nominal predicate, and those with a subject-predicate phrase as the predicate.
Non subject-predicate sentences can be classified as subjectless sentences, one word sentences, and elliptical sentences. For instance,
出太阳了 (chū tàiyáng le)。It’s sunny outside.
小心 (xiǎo xīn)！Watch out!
Simple sentences can also be classified by their use. Simple sentences can be classified as declarative sentences, interrogative sentences, imperative sentences, or exclamatory sentences.
Other Simple Sentence
One Word Sentences
One word sentences contain only a single word or a single endocentric phrase. They are used to express time or place, praise, a discovery, a warning, to address someone, agreement, opposition, or a question. For instance,
小心 (xiǎoxīn)！Be careful!
干嘛 (gàn ma) What’s wrong.
决不 (jué bù)！No way!
真美 (zhēn měi)！So beautiful!
In an elliptical sentence only a part of the whole sentence is spoken because the meaning can be understood from the context. Elliptical sentences are often used in conversation. For instance,
你去不去 (nǐ qù bú qù)？Are you going or not?（我）不去。No. I am not going. (The subject is omitted.)
你想喝点儿什么 (nǐ xiǎng hē diǎn'er shénme)？我想喝果汁 (wǒ xiǎng hē guǒzhī)。What would you like to drink? Orange juice.