The University of Science and Technology of China(中国科学技术大学:Zhōnɡɡuó Kēxué Jìshù Dàxué) is a new type of university established by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) after the founding of the New China. The establishment of the university is aimed at fostering high-level personnel of science and technology absolutely necessary for the development of the national economy, national defense construction, and education in science and technology. The university was founded in Beijing in September of 1958. Mr. Guo Moruo(郭沫若:Guō Mòruò) is the first president of the university. The establishment was hailed as "A Major Event in the History of Chinese Education and Science".

CAS has supported the university by combining most of its Institutes with the departments of the university. CAS has pooled the entire strength of its faculty and its advantage in science and technology for the development of the university. USTC is listed in the top 16 national key universities by the Central Committee of the CCP, becoming the youngest national key university.