Exemplarious translation of The Changes of the Zhou
Changes of the Zhou (B) 31. Xian (Influence)
Swamp (above) Mountain is Influence; the Trigram Dui above, and Gen below.
Xian indicates, that there will be free course and success. Its advantageousness will depend on the being firm and correct, as in marrying a young lady. There will be good fortune.
The Tuan Commentary says: Xian is here used in the sense of gan (xian plus heart), meaning influencing. The weak trigram above, and the strong one below; their two influences moving and responding to each ofther, and thereby forming a union; the repression of the one and the satisfaction of the other; where the male is placed below the female; all these things convey the notion of a free and successful course, while the advantage will depend on being firm an correct, as in marrying a young lady, and there will be good fortune. Heaven and earth exert their influences, and there ensue the transformation and production of all things. The sages influence the minds of men, and the result is harmony and peace under all the sky. If we look at those influences, the true character of heaven and earth and of all things can be seen.
The Great Symbolism says: A mountain and above the marsh form xian. The superior man, in accordance with this, keeps his mind free from preoccupation, and open to receive others.
• The first (lowest) line, divided (yin), shows one moving his great toes. The Small Symbolism says: "He moves his great toe": his mind is set on what is beyond.
• The second line, divided (yin), shows one moving the calves of his leg. There will be evil. If he abide, there will be good fortune. The Small Symbolism says: Though there "would be evil"; yet, "if he abide quiet in his place, there will be good fortune"; through compliance there will be no injury.
• The third line, undivided (yang), shows one moving his thighs, and keeping close hold of those whom he follows. Going forward will cause regret. The Small Symbolism says: "He moves his thighs", he still does not rest in his place. His will is set on following others; what he holds in his grasp is low.
• The fourth line, undivided (yang), shows that firm correctness which will lead to good fortune, and prevent all occasion for repentance. If its subject be unsettled in his movements, his friends will follow his purpose. The Small Symbolism says: "Firm correctness will lead to good fortune, and prevent all occasion for repentance"; there has not yet been any harm from influence. "He is unsettled in his movements", is not yet either brilliant or great.
• The fifth line, undivided (yang), shows one moving the flesh along the spine above the heart. There will be no occasion for repentance. The Small Symbolism says: "He moves the flesh along the spine above the heart", his aim is trivial.
• The sixth line (the highest line), divided (yin), shows one moving his jaws and tongue. The Small Symbolism says: "He moves his jaws and tongue", he talks with loquacious mouth.
圣人设卦观象，系辞焉而明吉凶，刚柔相推而生变化．是故吉凶者，失得之象也．悔吝者，忧虞之象也．变化者，近推之象也．刚柔者，昼夜之象也．六爻之动，三 极之道也．是故君子所居而安者，《易》之序也．所乐而玩者，爻之辞也．是故君子居则观其象而玩其辞．动则观其变而玩其占．是以自天佑之，吉无不利．〔第二 章〕
The Great Treatise, 1st part
The sages set forth the diagrams, inspected the emblems contained in them, and appended their explanations; - in this way the good fortune and bad were made clear. The strong and the weak lines displace each other, and produce the changes and transformations in the figures. Therefore the good fortune and evil mentioned in the explanations are the indications of the right and wrong in men's conduct of affairs, and the repentance and regret mentioned are the indications of their sorrow and anxiety. The changes and transformations of the lines are the emblems of the advance and retrogression of the vital force in nature. Thus what we call the strong and the weak lines become the emblems of day and night. The movements which take place in the six places of the hexagrams show the course of the three extremes. Therefore what the superior man rests in, in whatever position he is places, is the order shown in the Book of Changes; and the study which gives him the greatest pleasure is that of the explanations of the several lines. Therefore the superior man, when living quietly, contemplates the emblems and studies the explanations of them; when initiating any movement, he contemplates the changes that are made in divining, and studies the prognostications from them. Thus "is help extended to him from Heaven; there will be good fortune, and advantage in every movement." (2)
Treatise of Remarks on the Trigrams
Anciently, when the sages made the Book of Changes, in order to give mysterious asistance to the spiritual Intelligences, they produced the divining milfoil. The number three was assigned to heaven, two to earth, and from these came the other numbers. They contemplated the changes in the divided and undivided lines, and formed the trigrams; from the movements that took place in the strong and weak lines, they produced the separate lines. There ensued a harmonious conformity to the course and to virtue, with a discrimination of what was right, and effected the complete development of nature, till they arrived at what was appointed for it. (1)
Qian is the symbol of strength, Kun, of docility; Zhen, of stimulus to movement; Xun, of penetration; Kan, of what is precipitous and perilous; Li, of what is bright and what is catching; Gen, of stoppage or arrest; and Dui, of pleasure and satisfaction. (7)
Qian suggests the idea of a horse; Kun, that of an ox; Zhen, that of a dragon; Xun, that of a fowl; Kan, that of a pig; Li, that of a pheasant; Gen, that of a dog; and Dui, that of a sheep. (8)
Qian suggests the idea of the head; Kun, that of the belly; Zhen, that of the feet; Xun, that of the thighs; Kan, that of the ears; Li, that of the eyes; Gen, that of the hands; and Dui, that of the mouth. (9)
有天地，然后有万物；有万物，然后有男女；有男女，然后有夫妇；有夫妇，然后有父子；有父子，然后有君臣； 有君臣，然后有上下；有上下，然而礼仪所有错。夫妇之道，不可不久也，故受之以恒；恒者久也。物不可以久居其所，故受之以遯； 遯者退也。物不可以终遯，故受之以大壮。〔下篇一〕
The orderly sequence of the Hexagrams
Heaven and earth existing, all things then got their existence. All things having existance, afterwards there came male and female. From the existence of male and female there came afterwards husband and wife. From husband and wife there came father and son. From father and son there came ruler and minister. From ruler and minister there came high and low. When high and low had existance, afterwards came the arrangements of propriety and righteousness. The rule for the relation of husband and wife is that it should be long-enduring. Hence Xian is followed by Heng. Heng denotes long enduring. Things cannot long abide in the same place; and hence Heng is followed by Dun. Dun denotes withdrawing. Things cannot be for ever withdrawn; and hence Dun is succeeded by Dazhuang.
Treatise on the Hexagrams taken promiscously
Above the Jin the sun shines clear and bright,
but in Mingyi 'tis hidden from the sight.
Progress in Jing in Kun encounters bright;
Effect quick answering cause in Xian appears;
While Heng denotes continuance for years.