History of Hanyu Pinyin
Every one who have learned Chinese must know pinyin. It's a basic learning tool of Chinese pronunciation. But just a little person clearly know where it comes from. This articles will show you the mysterious history of pinyin. Then you will know how it was created and how it changes.
History ahead of 1949
In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi qiji (The Miracle of Western Letters) in Beijing. This was the initial book to utilize the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years later, an additional Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, issued his Xi ru ermu zi (Aid to the Eyes and Ears of Western Literati) at Hangzhou. Neither book had significantly fast impact about the way in which Chinese considered about their writing system, as well as the romanizations they described had been intended much more for Westerners than for that Chinese, but implied a very first hard work which eventually gave origin to pinyin.
One earliest Chinese thinker to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late-Ming to early Qing Dynasty scholar-official Fang Yizhi (1611–1671). It was not until two hundred years later that the idea of spelling planted in China by the Jesuits had sufficiently matured for that Chinese themselves to start proposing its application for the design and style of new and even more productive scripts. The initial late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a program of spelling was Song Shu (1862-1910). A student of the great scholars, Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the beautiful impact of the kana syllabaries and Western learning there. This galvanized him into activity on the variety of fronts, one of the most essential currently being reform of the script. Even though Song didn't himself truly create a program for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts.
Communist Party of China leaders trained in Moscow introduced a phonetic alphabet utilizing roman letters designed inside the Soviet Oriental Institute of Leningrad in the early 1930s. This Sin Wenz or "New Writing", from which the present pinyin method differs only somewhat, was a lot more linguistically sophisticated than earlier alphabets, with all the major exception that it didn't indicate tones. In 1940, many thousand members attended a Border Area Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, each contributed their calligraphy (in characters) for that masthead of the Sin Wenz Society's new journal. Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters incorporated Sun Yat-sen's son, Sun Fo; Cai Yuanpei, the country's most prestigious educator; Tao Xingzhi, a top educational reformer; and Lu Xun. Above thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus significant numbers of translations, biographies (which includes Lincoln, Franklin, Edison, Ford, and Charlie Chaplin), some modern Chinese literature, as well as a spectrum of textbooks. In 1940, the movement reached an apex when Mao's Border Area Government declared the Sin Wenz had exactly the same legal standing as traditional characters in government and public paperwork. Several educators and political leaders looked forward to the day whenever they will be universally accepted and entirely substitute characters. Opposition arose, nevertheless, because the method was significantly less effectively adapted to writing regional languages, and consequently would need studying Mandarin. Sin Wenzi fell into relative disuse during the following years.